Researchers' Profiles

Christine E. Grella, Ph.D.

ISAP Co-Director

Christine E. Grella, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at the Integrated Substance Abuse Programs (ISAP), Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, and Director of ISAP. Her research focuses on the intersection of multiple service delivery systems, including substance abuse treatment, mental health, child welfare, health services, HIV services, and criminal justice. Her work has examined the relationship of service delivery to treatment outcomes, focusing on treatment for women, adolescents, individuals in the criminal justice system, and individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. She has published her work widely in the areas of addiction, mental health, health services, and evaluation research. Dr. Grella directs the NIDA-funded pre- and post-doctoral training program at ISAP and is a Co-Investigator and Director of the Research and Methods Support Core of the NIDA-funded Center for Advancing Longitudinal Drug Abuse Research (CALDAR).

  • University of California, Los Angeles, B.A., Psychology, 1977
  • University of California, Santa Cruz, M.A., Psychology, 1982
  • University of California, Santa Cruz, Ph.D., Psychology, 1985
  • University of California, Los Angeles, Post-Doc, Evaluation Research, 1989
  • Health services research
  • Treatment processes & outcomes
  • Gender differences & gender-specific treatment for women
  • Outcome evaluation of treatment for adolescents, homeless individuals, individuals with co-occurring disorders, and individuals in the criminal justice system
  • Longitudinal follow-up studies

Grella, C.E., & Greenwell, L. (2007).  Treatment needs and completion of community-based aftercare among substance-abusing women offenders.  Women’s Health Issues, 17(4), 244-255.

Grella, C.E., Scott, C.K, Foss, M., & Dennis, M.L.  (2008).  Gender similarities and differences in the treatment, relapse, and recovery cycle.  Evaluation Review, 32(1), 113-137.

Grella, C.E., Greenwell, L., Prendergast, M. L., Sacks, S., & Melnick, G.  (2008). Diagnostic profiles of offenders in substance abuse treatment programs.  Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 26, 369-388.

Grella, C.E.  (2008). From generic to gender-responsive treatment:  Changes in social policies, treatment services, and outcomes of women in substance abuse treatment.  Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, SARC Supplement 5, 327-343.

Grella, C.E.  (2009).  Treatment seeking and utilization among women with substance use disorders.  In K.T. Brady, S.E. Back & S. Greenfield (Eds.), Women and addiction (pp. 307-322).  New York: Guilford Publications.

Grella, C.E., & Anglin, M.D. (Eds.)  (2009).  Addiction health services research [Special issue in memory of Douglas Longshore].  Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 36(2).

Grella, C.E., Needell, B.N., Shi, Y., & Hser, Y.I. (2009). Do drug treatment services predict reunification outcomes of mothers and their children in child welfare? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36(3), 278-293.

Grella, C.E., Karno, M.P., Warda, U.S., Niv, N., & Moore, A.A. (2009). Gender and comorbidity among individuals with opioid use disorders in the NESARC Study. Addictive Behaviors, 34(6), 498-504.

Gil-Rivas, V., Prause, J.A., & Grella, C.E. (2009). Substance use after residential treatment among individuals with co-occurring disorders: The role of anxiety/depressive symptoms and trauma exposure. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(2), 303-314.

Greenfield, S.F., & Grella, C.E. (2009). What is "women-focused" treatment for substance use disorders? Psychiatric Services, 60(7), 880-882.

Grella, C.E., Karno, M.P., Warda, U.S., Moore, A.A., & Niv, N. (2009). Perceptions of need and help received for substance dependence in a national probability survey. Psychiatric Services, 60(8), 1068-1074.

Grella, C.E., Greenwell, L., Mays, V.M., & Cochran, S.D. (2009). Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey. BMC Psychiatry, 9:52.

Wu, N.S., Schairer, L.C., Dellor, E., & Grella, C. (2010). Childhood trauma and health outcomes in adults with comorbid substance abuse and mental health disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 35(1), 68–71.

Niv, N., Warda, U., Grella, C.E., Moore, A.A., Sarkisyan, D. & Karno, M.P. (2010). Substance use disorders and treatment utilization among MDMA users: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Drug Issues.

Grella, C.E., Stein, J.A., Weisner, C., Chi, F.W., & Moos, R.H. (2010). Predictors of longitudinal substance use and mental health outcomes for patients in two service delivery systems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 110(1-2), 92-100.

Grella, C.E., Cochran, S.D., Greenwell, L., & Mays, V.M. (2011).  Effects of sexual orientation and gender on perceived need for treatment by persons with and without mental disorders.  Psychiatric Services, 62, 404-410.

Steinberg, J., Grella, C.E., Boudov, M., Kerndt, P.R., & Kadrnka, C. (2011). Methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behavior among incarcerated female adolescents with a diagnosed STD.  Journal of Urban Health, 88(2), 352-364.

Grella, C.E., & Lovinger, K. (2011). 30-year trajectories of heroin and other drug use among men and women sampled from methadone treatment in California.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118, 251-258.   

Grella, C.E., & Shi, Y.  (2011).  Stability of outcomes following residential drug treatment for patients with co-occurring disorders.  Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 7(1-2), 103-112.

Grella, C.E., & Rodriguez, L. (2011). Motivation for treatment among women offenders in prison-based treatment and longitudinal outcomes among those who participate in community aftercare.  Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(S1), 58-67.

Grella, C.E., & Lovinger, K.  (2012). Gender differences in physical and mental health outcomes among an aging cohort of individuals with a history of heroin dependence.  Addictive Behaviors, 37(3), 306-212

Stein, J.A., Zane, J.I., & Grella, C.E.  (2012). Impact of abstinence self-efficacy and treatment services on physical health-related behaviors and problems among dually diagnosed patients.  Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 8(1), 64-73.

Grella, C.E. (2012).  The long and winding roads to recovery [Review of the book “Survivors of Addiction:  Narratives of Recovery” by M. Addenbrooke].  PsycCRITIQUES, 57(2).

Grella C.E. (2012).  Regular primary care and specialty care as needed is associated with remission from alcohol and drug use disorders over 9 years. Evidence Based Mental Health. [Epub ahead of print]

Cochran, S.D., Grella, C.E., & Mays, V.M.  (2012). Do substance use norms and perceived drug availability mediate sexual orientation differences in patterns of substance use? Results from the California Quality of Life Survey II.  Journal of Studies of Alcohol and Drugs, 73(4), 675-685.

Stein, J. A., Grella, C.E., Conner, B.T., & Gelberg, L. (2012). Addiction syndrome and homelessness.  In H. J. Shaffer, D.A., LaPlante, & S.E. Nelson (Eds.), APA  Addiction Syndrome Handbook: Vol. 2: Recovery, Prevention, and Other Issues.  Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 457 – 571.

Grella, C.E., Lovinger, K., & Warda, U. (2013). Relationships among trauma exposure, familial characteristics, and PTSD:  A case control study of women in prison and in the general population.  Women and Criminal Justice, 23(1), 63-79.

Steinberg, J.K., Grella, C.E., & Boudov, M.R.  (2013).  Risky sexual behavior and negative health consequences among incarcerated female adolescents:  Implications for public health policy and practice.  In B. Sanders, Y.F. Thomas, & B. G. Deeds (Eds.).  Crime, HIV and Health: Intersections of Criminal Justice and Public Health Concerns.  New York:  Springer, pp. 63-79.

Chi, F.W., Weisner, C., Grella, C.E., Hser, Y.I., Moore, C., & Mertens, J. (2013). Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.12.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Saxena, P., Messina, N., & Grella, C. (2014).  Who benefits from gender responsive treatment? Accounting for abuse history on longitudinal outcomes for women in prison. Criminal Justice & Behavior. DOI: 10.1177/0093854813514405. [Epub ahead of print]

Grella, C. (2013).  Gender-specific treatments for substance use disorders.  In P.M. Miller (Ed.), Interventions for Addiction:  Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders.  San Diego, CA: Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, pp. 177–185.

Grella, C.E. (2013).  Gender-responsive treatment approaches for women with substance use disorders.  In:  DAWN Drugs and Alcohol Women Network: Promoting a Gender Responsive Approach to Drug Addiction.  United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute.

Grella, C.E., & Stein, J.A. (2013). Remission from substance dependence:  Differences between individuals in a general population longitudinal survey who do and do not seek help.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133, 146-153

Guerrero, G.E., Aarons, G.A., Grella, C.E., Garner, B.R., Cook, B., & Vega, W.A. (2014). Program capacity to eliminate outcome disparities in addiction health services.  Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research.  Epub ahead of print: doi.10.1007/s10488-014-0617-6

Witbrodt, J., Kaskutas, L.A., & Grella, C.E.  (2015). How do recovery definitions distinguish recovering individuals?  Five typologies.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 148, 109-117.

Kaskutas, L.A., Witbrodt, J., & Grella, C.E.  (2015). Recovery definitions:  Do they change?  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 154, 85-92.

Guerrero, G.E., Aarons, G.A., Grella, C.E., Garner, B.R., Cook, B., & Vega, W.A. (2016). Program capacity to eliminate outcome disparities in addiction health services.  Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 43(1), 23-35. PMCID: PMC4452456

Saxena, P., Grella, C.E., & Messina, N.  (2016). Continuing care and trauma in women offenders’ substance use, psychiatric status, and self-efficacy outcomes. Women & Criminal Justice, 26, 99–121.

Scott, C.K, Grella, C.E., Dennis, M.L., & Funk, R. (in press). A time-varying model of risk for predicting recidivism among women offenders over 3 years following their release from jail.  Criminal Justice & Behavior.